Basic Mixing Theory

Mixing Explained

Audio mixing is the process of combining multiple audio tracks into a stereo or multichannel format. It is a crucial step in music production that can greatly affect the overall quality of a recording. In this article, we will explore the basic mixing theory that is essential for any music producer or engineer.

Sidechain Compression

Basic Mixing Theory


The first and most important aspect of audio mixing is balance. Balancing refers to the process of adjusting the relative levels of each track in the mix to create a cohesive and balanced sound. The goal of balancing is to make sure that no one track is overpowering or too quiet compared to the others. Achieving a good balance is essential for creating a clear and defined mix that is easy to listen to.


Panorama refers to the placement of each track in the stereo field. Panning allows you to create a sense of space and dimension in your mix by placing different instruments and sounds in different parts of the stereo field. For example, you may pan a guitar track to the left and a keyboard track to the right to create a sense of separation between the two. The goal of panning is to create a natural and spacious sound that is pleasing to the listener.

Frequency Balance

Frequency balance refers to the distribution of frequencies across the audio spectrum. It is important to balance the frequency content of each track in the mix to prevent any frequency clashes or masking. This can be achieved by using EQ to cut or boost specific frequency ranges. By balancing the frequency content of each track, you can create a mix that is clear and defined, with each instrument having its own space in the frequency spectrum.


Dynamics refer to the changes in volume over time. Managing dynamics is important in mixing to ensure that the listener can hear all the parts of the mix clearly. This can be achieved through the use of compression, which helps to even out the levels of each track by reducing the dynamic range. By controlling the dynamics of each track, you can create a more consistent and balanced mix.

Reverb and Effects

Reverb and effects are used to create a sense of space and depth in the mix. Reverb can be used to simulate different types of acoustic spaces, such as a small room or a large concert hall. Effects such as delay or chorus can be used to add movement and interest to the mix. The goal of using reverb and effects is to enhance the overall sound of the mix and create a more immersive listening experience.


Mixing is a crucial part of music production that requires a solid understanding of the basic mixing theory. By achieving a good balance, creating a sense of space and dimension, balancing the frequency content, managing dynamics, and using reverb and effects, you can create a mix that is clear, defined, and pleasing to the listener. While there are many techniques and tools available for mixing, understanding the basic principles is essential for creating a successful mix that accurately represents the music you have recorded.

In the first episode of this season We’re looking at basic mixing theory : What is mixing, and what do we want to achieve with a mix? This highly visual episode will explain the basic theory of making a simple mix and will help you ‘visualize’ your mix a lot better. In this first episode we don’t really look at what we will be physically performing behind our mixing console, but mainly at the concept of what we will be creating. From episode 2 on we will be diving into mixing consoles, channel strips and their functions to understand the signal flow. From there on we will be going into some basic mixing sessions and grow into more advanced types of mixes.

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